文章摘要
郭新蕾,周兴波,夏庆福,付辉,李邵军.梯级水库群控制梯级极端工况泄洪安全分析[J].水利学报,2017,48(10):1157-1166
梯级水库群控制梯级极端工况泄洪安全分析
Safety analysis of flood discharge structures of the control cascade reservoir under extreme operating condition
投稿时间:2017-02-17  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20170124
中文关键词: 水库群  控制梯级  泄水建筑物  连溃  超标准洪水
英文关键词: cascade reservoirs  control cascade reservoir  discharge structure  cascade dam break  super standard flood
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展规划“973”项目(2013CB036405);国家自然科学基金项目(51679262);国家重点研发计划课题(2016YFC0401706)
作者单位
郭新蕾 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038 
周兴波 水电水利规划设计总院, 北京 100120 
夏庆福 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038 
付辉 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038 
李邵军 中国科学院 武汉岩土力学研究所 岩土力学与工程国家重点实验室, 湖北 武汉 430071 
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中文摘要:
      河流梯级开发中,极端条件下流域安全主要取决于干流控制梯级的安全。已有研究将控制梯级特级坝分为特1级和特2级,究竟哪种等级的大坝应设置非常泄洪设施或临时措施,在较高水位时启动来降低控制梯级的泄洪风险,此项研究尚属空白。本文基于DB-IWHR模型理论框架,研制开发了水库群连溃数值模拟平台,并针对控制梯级特级坝的空间分布类型,考虑梯级水库群风险源可能出现的超标准洪水+地震引发某一泄水闸门失效的极端运用工况,从控制梯级的泄洪安全和设置非常泄洪设施的必要性角度,研究了流域梯级安全问题。结果表明:对于"上下相当"的布局,梯级水库群特1级坝须增设非常溢洪设施以应对超标准洪水、或某一闸门无法开启及其组合运用工况。对于"上小下大"的布局,由于风险触发梯级溃决预警时间常以小时计,特1级坝通过设置非常泄洪设施增大泄洪裕度可进一步降低库水位,从而使得特1级坝腾出更大的库容应对上游溃坝洪水,明显提高特1级坝的安全裕度。本文提出的理论计算方法和增大泄流能力途径可供梯级水库群设计运行参考。
英文摘要:
      The risk of the whole cascade reservoirs of the earth rockfill dams under extreme operating con-dition is rely on the security of the control cascade reservoir. Such earth rockfill dam with extra height is classified into ClassⅠ and ClassⅡ dam based on the existing Chinese dam classification systems recently, but which one should design the unusual discharge facilities to reduce the risk level of the dams during the extreme operating condition is blank. Based on the theoretical framework of single DB-IWHR model, a cascade dam break flood simulation software was firstly established. Considering the extreme operating condi-tion (super standard flood combine with discharge gate failure caused by earthquake)and the discharge ca-pacity, the paper simulated the dam break discharge, flood routing and water level of the control cascade reservoir to evaluate the safety of the whole cascade dams. The simulated results show that, for the layout ‘ClassⅠ dam-earth rockfill dams-ClassⅠ’, the unusual discharge facility should be considered in the de-sign of the up Class Ⅰ dam. For the layout ‘ClassⅡ dam-earth rockfill dams-ClassⅠ dam’, by adding un-usual discharge facility or improve the discharge capacity for the ClassⅠ dam, it can lower the water level of the reservoir obviously after the break of the up Class Ⅱ dam which vacate larger storage capacity to deal with this break discharge. This analysis and discharge capacity improvement method not only can be used as an important tool to evaluate cascade dams risk under extreme operating condition, but also pro-vide supports for the design criteria of the unusual discharge structures for extra height dam.
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