文章摘要
曹平,穆祥鹏,白音包力皋,王秀英,陈云飞.与鱼道水力设计相关的草鱼幼鱼游泳行为特性研究[J].水利学报,2017,48(12):1456-1464
与鱼道水力设计相关的草鱼幼鱼游泳行为特性研究
Study on swimming behavior of juvenile grass carp for the fish channel hydraulic design
投稿时间:2017-08-01  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20170758
中文关键词: 鱼道水力学  鱼类游泳能力  感应流速  突进游泳速度  临界游泳速度
英文关键词: fishway  swimming capability  the induction speed  burst swimming speed  critical swimming speed
基金项目:国家重点研发计划重点专项(2016YFC0502207);中国水科院科研专项(HY0145B372016)
作者单位E-mail
曹平 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
穆祥鹏 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038 swood2002@163.com 
白音包力皋 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
王秀英 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
陈云飞 中国水利水电科学研究院 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 北京 100038  
摘要点击次数: 90
全文下载次数: 81
中文摘要:
      在25±0.5℃水温条件下,针对体长在5.0~16.0 cm范围内的草鱼幼鱼,利用鱼类游泳行为测试水槽研究了与鱼道水力设计密切相关的草鱼幼鱼游泳特性指标和游泳行为,结果表明该体长范围的草鱼幼鱼平均感应流速为12.84 cm/s,突进游泳速度随着体长增加而线性增加,相对突进游速随着体长增加而线性减小,突进游速约为临界游速的1.05~1.28倍,而且鱼体越长,突进游速超出临界游速就越多。在突进游速试验过程中分析了流速快速变化对鱼类游泳行为的影响,发现试验鱼在适应流速变化过程中,顺流而下、逆流静止、逆流冲刺、逆流后退4种游泳行为相互穿插,并根据鱼类游泳状态的变化,将整个流速递增的游泳过程分为4个阶段,提出以草鱼为过鱼对象的鱼道池室主流最大流速不宜超过第1阶段的最大流速(草鱼幼鱼突进游速的52%~60%),对于竖缝、孔口等鱼道的高流速区,其最佳流速不应高于第2阶段的最大流速(突进游速的76%~79%),绝不可超过第3阶段的最大流速(突进游速的90%~96%)。研究成果补充了四大家鱼游泳特性指标,可为鱼道设计提供水力设计参数。
英文摘要:
      The swimming capability and swimming behavior of the juvenile grass carp(BL=5.0-16.0cm) were tested using self-made test chamber at 25±50.5℃. The results showed that the mean induction speed of the juvenile grass carp was 12.84 cm/s. The absolute burst swimming speed increases linearly with increasing body length, and in contrast, relative burst swimming speed decreases linearly with increasing body length. Burst swimming speed is about 1.05-1.28 times of critical swimming speed, and the longer the fish body, the greater the difference between critical speed and burst swimming speed. Effects of rapid changes in flow rate on swimming behavior of fish were analyzed. It is found that in the process of adapting to the change of flow rate, downstream, countercurrent static, counter dash and countercurrent retreat four kinds of swimming behavior interspersed with each other. The entire testing process can consist of four stages. Proposed when the fishway passes through the object are the grass carp, the maximum flow rate of the main flow of the pool should not exceed the maximum flow rate of the first stage (burst speed of juvenile grass carp 52%-60%), for high-speed areas such as vertical joints, orifices, the optimum flow rate should not be higher than the maximum velocity of the second stage (burst speed of juvenile grass carp 52%-60%),must not exceed the maximum velocity of the third stage (burst speed of 90%-96%). The research results complement the swimming capability gaps of the four major chinese carps, and provide an important reference for the hydraulic design of the fish way.
查看全文   查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭