文章摘要
杨开林.河渠冰水力学、冰情观测与预报研究进展[J].水利学报,2018,49(1):81-91
河渠冰水力学、冰情观测与预报研究进展
Advances of ice hydraulics,ice regime observation and forecasting in rivers
投稿时间:2017-07-10  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20170671
中文关键词: 冰情预报  冰水力学  模型实验  原型观测
英文关键词: ice regime forecasting  ice hydraulics  model experiment  prototype observation
基金项目:国家重点研究计划课题(2017YFC0405103,2017YFC0405704);公益性行业科研专项(201501025);中国水科院科研专项(HY0145C222016,HY0145B642017,SKL2017CGS04,HY0145B912017);国家自然基金(51679263,51179209,51209233)
作者单位
杨开林 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
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中文摘要:
      冰情预报是进行防凌指挥、调度、决策的重要科学依据,也是一项复杂的系统工程,涉及冰水力学、热力学、气象及人工智能等学科。本文回顾了近几十年来冰水力学基础理论、模型实验和原型观测、冰情预报等方面的研究进展,包括:冰盖下流动的糙率计算,冰盖、冰塞、冰坝形成发展的理论研究及数值模拟,模型实验、原型观测典型成果,探地雷达、超声波技术、摄影、摄像、遥感、无人机航拍等现代冰情观测技术的发展与应用等。在此基础上,总结和归纳出研究现状及存在的一些急需解决的科学问题。
英文摘要:
      The ice regime forecasting is an important scientific basis for conducting prevention, dispatching and decision-making for ice flood. It is also a complicated systematic project involving the ice hydraulics, thermodynamics, meteorology and artificial intelligence. In this paper are reviewed the advances of the ice hydraulics theory, the model experiment and prototype observation, and ice regime forecasting in recent de-cades, including the ice roughness coefficient calculation, the numerical simulation of the formation and evolution of ice covers, ice jams and ice dams, the typical results of the model experiments and prototype observations, as well as the application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR), ultrasonic, photographing, video-taping, remote sensing and aerial drone technics et al to the ice regime observation. At last, some scientific problems needed to resolve are presented.
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