文章摘要
林炳章,兰平,张叶晖,林智琛,陈晓旸.可能最大降水估算研究综述[J].水利学报,2018,49(1):92-102,114
可能最大降水估算研究综述
Research advances in drip irrigation emitter clogging mechanism and controlling methods
投稿时间:2017-12-19  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20171223
中文关键词: 可能最大降水  水文气象途径  数值模拟  短历时  不确定性  气候变化
英文关键词: drip irrigation  emitter  clogging characteristics  clogging substances  mechanism  controlling
基金项目:香港土木工程署《24-hour PMP Updating Study》;香港土木工程署《4-hour Probable Maximum Precipitation(PMP) Updating Study in Hong Kong》;2013年江苏省普通高校研究生科研创新计划项目
作者单位E-mail
林炳章 南京信息工程大学水文气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044  
兰平 南京信息工程大学大气科学学院, 江苏 南京 210044 blue8724@163.com 
张叶晖 南京信息工程大学水文气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044  
林智琛 南京信息工程大学水文气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044  
陈晓旸 南京信息工程大学水文气象学院, 江苏 南京 210044  
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中文摘要:
      可能最大降水PMP用于推求重要水利水电工程、核电工程和滨海大城市防洪的可能最大洪水。80多年来,国内外已经对可能最大降水估算开展了大量深入的研究。本文比较系统地从统计估算法、当地暴雨放大法、暴雨移置法、概化估算法、暴雨模式法、数值模拟法和多重分形法等方面综述PMP估算方法研究应用现状。对PMP估算研究5个方面的前沿与热点问题:山区暴雨移置、短历时PMP估算、PMP估算的不确定性、气候变化对PMP估算的影响和PMP的概率等进行了阐述。最后展望了PMP估算未来的发展趋势和研究方向。
英文摘要:
      Drip irrigation emitter clogging issue directly affects irrigation uniformity, operating benefits and service life of the whole irrigation system, and has become one of the most worldwide challenges of the drip irrigation studying area. Especially in the subsurface drip irrigation(SDI)system, the additional negative pressure suction and root invasion effects made the emitter clogging mechanism more complicated. Besides, both water shortage and water pollution forced us to apply multiple water sources in drip irrigation system, and meanwhile the system gradually transferred from merely irrigation to multifunction (including irrigation and fertilization etc.). Using drip irrigation in high value-added perennial crops also raised higher require-ments in emitter anti-clogging ability. In this paper, the studying process of drip irrigation emitter clogging issue was reviewed. The types of emitter clogging, the testing and evaluating methods, as well as emitter clogging characteristics and prediction methods were systematically summarized at first. Then, based on how to analyze the clogging substances, the coupled-inducing mechanism and continuously growing mechanism were revealed, from the aspects of growth kinetics of clogging substances and transportation of multiple sub-stances within emitters, respectively. Thus came up with the emitter clogging controlling methods, including controlling the sources of clogging substances, improving anti-clogging ability and effectively clearing clog-ging substances. Finally proposed the aspects needed to be studied in the future, aiming to provide referenc-es to solving emitter clogging issue completely and enhancing its large-scale promotions.
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