文章摘要
李云开,周博,杨培岭.滴灌系统灌水器堵塞机理与控制方法研究进展[J].水利学报,2018,49(1):103-114
滴灌系统灌水器堵塞机理与控制方法研究进展
Research advances in drip irrigation emitter clogging mechanism and controlling methods
投稿时间:2017-09-21  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20170931
中文关键词: 滴灌  灌水器  堵塞特征  堵塞物质  机理  控制
英文关键词: drip irrigation  emitter  clogging characteristics  clogging substances  mechanism  controlling
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51321001,51709261)
作者单位
李云开 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院, 北京 100083 
周博 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院, 北京 100083
威斯康辛大学麦迪逊分校农业与生命科学学院, 威斯康辛 WI53706, 美国 
杨培岭 中国农业大学水利与土木工程学院, 北京 100083 
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中文摘要:
      滴灌系统灌水器堵塞问题直接影响灌水均匀度、系统运行效益和使用寿命,是滴灌领域的国际难题之一,而地下滴灌系统中负压吸泥作用与根系入侵效应使得灌水器堵塞机理更为复杂。尤其是水资源短缺与水污染并重的现状迫使滴灌水源多元化、滴灌系统由单一灌溉功能逐步向灌溉施肥等多功能转变以及滴灌技术在高附加值的多年生作物上的应用等因素,对灌水器抗堵塞能力提出了更高的要求。本文通过回顾滴灌系统灌水器堵塞问题研究历程,系统总结了灌水器堵塞类型、测试与评价方法以及发生特征与预报方法,通过建立堵塞物质提取与精细测试方法,分别从堵塞物质形成与生长过程、水源中多物质运移过程两个角度,揭示了灌水器堵塞耦合诱发机制与持续增长机理,通过综合控制堵塞物质来源(前控)、提升自身抗堵塞能力(中排)和有效清除堵塞物质(后清)等多角度建立了灌水器堵塞控制方法,最终提出该领域急需进一步研究的问题和方向。本文旨在为解决滴灌系统灌水器堵塞问题及推动滴灌技术规模化应用与推广提供理论支撑。
英文摘要:
      Drip irrigation emitter clogging issue directly affects irrigation uniformity, operating benefits and service life of the whole irrigation system, and has become one of the most worldwide challenges of the drip irrigation studying area. Especially in the subsurface drip irrigation(SDI)system, the additional negative pressure suction and root invasion effects made the emitter clogging mechanism more complicated. Besides, both water shortage and water pollution forced us to apply multiple water sources in drip irrigation system, and meanwhile the system gradually transferred from merely irrigation to multifunction (including irrigation and fertilization etc.). Using drip irrigation in high value-added perennial crops also raised higher require-ments in emitter anti-clogging ability. In this paper, the studying process of drip irrigation emitter clogging issue was reviewed. The types of emitter clogging, the testing and evaluating methods, as well as emitter clogging characteristics and prediction methods were systematically summarized at first. Then, based on how to analyze the clogging substances, the coupled-inducing mechanism and continuously growing mechanism were revealed, from the aspects of growth kinetics of clogging substances and transportation of multiple sub-stances within emitters, respectively. Thus came up with the emitter clogging controlling methods, including controlling the sources of clogging substances, improving anti-clogging ability and effectively clearing clog-ging substances. Finally proposed the aspects needed to be studied in the future, aiming to provide referenc-es to solving emitter clogging issue completely and enhancing its large-scale promotions.
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