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文章摘要
刘晓燕,高云飞,马三保,董国涛.黄土高原淤地坝的减沙作用及其时效性[J].水利学报,2018,49(2):145-155
黄土高原淤地坝的减沙作用及其时效性
Sediment reduction of warping dams and its timeliness in the Loess Plateau
投稿时间:2017-09-20  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20170925
中文关键词: 黄土高原  淤地坝  拦沙  减沙  时效性  坝地
英文关键词: Loess Plateau  warping dams  intercepted sediment quantity  timeliness  warping land  sediment reduction
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0102403)
作者单位
刘晓燕 黄河水利委员会, 河南 郑州 450003 
高云飞 黄河上中游管理局, 陕西 西安 710021 
马三保 绥德水土保持试验站, 陕西 绥德 719000 
董国涛 黄河水利委员会黄河水利科学研究院, 河南 郑州 450003 
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中文摘要:
      在黄河近年来沙锐减的背景下,需要深入探究黄土高原淤地坝的减沙作用。本文基于实测数据分析了淤地坝拦沙与入黄泥沙减少量的关系、拦沙作用的时效性以及坝地的减蚀作用。研究结果表明,淤地坝拦沙量一般大于或等于相应的入黄泥沙减少量;流域的林草梯田覆盖率越大、地表土壤粒径越粗,淤地坝因拦沙所致的减沙量占其拦沙量的比例越小。淤地坝拦沙作用的时效性非常突出,拦沙库容淤满即基本失去拦沙能力。失去拦沙能力后,淤地坝仍可依靠拦沙所形成的坝地发挥减沙作用;如果流域的林草梯田覆盖状况较差,坝地减沙作用的"空间影响范围"可达自身面积的4倍。不过,随着流域的林草梯田覆盖率增大,单位面积坝地的实际减沙量会逐渐降低。
英文摘要:
      The sediment reducing effect of warping dams need to be discussed thoroughly due to the sharp decline of the sediment runoff of the Yellow River in recent years. Based on the observed data, this paper analyzed the relationship between the intercepted sediment quantity of warping dams and the corresponding sediment incoming reduction of the Yellow River, the timeliness of sediment intercept ability, and the erosion reduction function of the warping land. The study results reveal that the intercepted sediment quantity of warping dams is normally larger than or equal to the corresponding sediment incoming reduction of the Yellow River. The higher the basin's vegetation-terrace coverage degree and the coarser the Soil particle size is,the smaller will be the proportion of sediment incoming reduction to the intercepted sediment quantity. The timeliness of the dams'sediment trapping function is very prominent, once the sediment storage usage limit is reached, a warping dam would lost its sediment trapping capacity. After that, the dam will continuously reduce and control the soil erosion by its warping land. The influence area of warping land in the term of erosion reduction even reaches 4 times of warping land area, if the vegetation-terrace coverage of the basin is rather poor. But with increased vegetation-terrace coverage rate,the erosion reducing quantity of warping lands will be gradually weakened.
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