文章摘要
彭文启,刘晓波,王雨春,邹晓雯.流域水环境与生态学研究回顾与展望[J].水利学报,2018,49(9):1055-1067
流域水环境与生态学研究回顾与展望
Review and prospect of progress in water environment and water ecology research
投稿时间:2018-07-17  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20180651
中文关键词: 流域  水环境  水生态  水环境监测  水环境模型  水功能区  河湖健康
英文关键词: watershed  water environment  water ecology  water environmental monitoring  water environmental modeling  water functional zone  river and lake health
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51479219);中国水科院创新领军人才项目(WE0145B532017);中国水科院创新团队项目(WE0145B592017)
作者单位E-mail
彭文启 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
刘晓波 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038 xbliu@iwhr.com 
王雨春 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
邹晓雯 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
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中文摘要:
      简要分析了流域水环境与生态学的发展历程,系统介绍了2010年以来中国水利水电科学研究院水环境研究所取得的主要科研成果:(1)水环境监测技术与标准。形成了水环境监测分析技术与标准体系,研发了系列水环境监测标准物质,研究了水源地健康风险评价技术与水污染事件应急预警预报关键技术,研发了水环境监测新技术与设备;(2)流域水环境与水生态过程演变机理与模型。在大型水库重金属污染物水环境演变机理及效应、生源物质流域迁移转化特征及驱动机制、生态水文过程变异与河湖生态响应机制与流域水环境与生态模型等方面取得系列创新成果;(3)流域水质目标管理与流域水环境综合治理技术。形成了水功能区达标评价技术体系、流域容量总量控制技术体系,提出了流域水环境综合治理规划技术与湖库沉积物污染评价与生态疏浚方案制定技术,研发了生物慢滤水处理水质净化技术及设备;(4)河湖健康评估与水生态保护修复技术。提出了河湖健康评估标准,研究形成了河湖水系生态连通技术、生态流量确定技术、水质水量联合调度技术与水生态修复技术。最后分析了新时期水环境与生态学的科技需求,提出了水环境研究的展望。
英文摘要:
      Water environment and ecology is a comprehensive science that studies the interaction between watershed activities and the water environment and water ecology evolution of the basin,providing basic theory and methods for the construction of water ecological civilization, with closely relation to the disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, ecology, environmental science and technology, and resource science and technology. The problems including water shortage, water ecological damage, and water environmental pollution,which have become increasingly serious since the 1980s,have significantly driven the formation of water environment and ecological disciplines. A brief review of the development of water environment and ecology is presented,and the main research achievements of the Department of Water Environment (DEW) in China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research(IWHR) since 2010 are introduced as following aspects. (1) Water environment monitoring technology and standards. On the basis of the previous research achievement such as monitoring technologies for natural water quality and heavy metals, trace and ultra-trace toxic and harmful organic pollutants,new progress has been made in the development of water environment monitoring and analysis techniques and standards, reference materials for water environment monitoring, health risk assessment methods for water source, water pollution emergency warning and forecasting system, and new technologies and equipment for water environment monitoring. (2) The evolution mechanism and model of water environment and water ecological process in basin. A series of innovations have been achieved, including the evolution mechanism and effects of heavy metal pollutants in large reservoirs, the characteristics and driving mechanisms of migration and transformation of source waters, the variation of ecological and hydrological processes, the ecological response mechanism of rivers and lakes, and the water environment and ecological model of watershed. (3) Watershed water quality management and water pollution prevention technology. Water function zone water quality assessment guidelines,and watershed total maximum load control technology system are formed. The watershed comprehensive planning technology of water pollution control and the lake reservoir sediment pollution assessment and ecological dredging scheme development technology are proposed, and the biological slow water treatment technology and equipment are put forward. (4)River and lake health assessment and water ecological protection and restoration technology. The river and lake health assessment standards, the river-lake water system ecological connectivity technology, ecological flow determination technology, water quality and water quantity joint dispatching technology and water ecological restoration technology were formed. Finally, the scientific and technological needs of water environment and ecology in the new era are analyzed, and the future prospects of water environment research is proposed.
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