文章摘要
刘广全,白应飞,张亭,王中强,胡彩娥.黄土高原农牧交错带湿地重构对鸟类多样性的影响[J].水利学报,2018,49(9):1097-1108
黄土高原农牧交错带湿地重构对鸟类多样性的影响
The influence of wetland-ecosystem reconstruction on the avifauna diversity in the farming-pastoral zone of the loess plateau
投稿时间:2018-07-17  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20180657
中文关键词: 鸟类  多样性  响应  湿地重构  黄土高原农牧交错带
英文关键词: water-birds  diversity  response  wetland restoration and reconstruction  farming-pastoral zone of the Loess Plateau
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0501602,2016YFC0501705);中国水科院成果转化专项(SC1003A012016);中国水科院调研专项(SC0145C152017)
作者单位
刘广全 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038
国际泥沙研究培训中心, 北京 100048 
白应飞 延安市退耕还林工程管理办公室, 陕西 延安 716000 
张亭 神木市林业局, 陕西 神木 719300 
王中强 榆林市林业局, 陕西 榆林 719000 
胡彩娥 榆林市林业局, 陕西 榆林 719000 
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中文摘要:
      为客观评价生态脆弱地带湿地生态系统变化对鸟类多样性的影响,2017—2018年采用样带法对陕北榆林湿地生态系统重构前后的水鸟变化开展了系统调查。研究结果表明:研究区共有水鸟106种,隶属9目20科55属,分别占陕西全省和全国水鸟总数的88%和40%,其中列入国家Ⅰ、Ⅱ级和省级重点保护鸟类的分别有2、11和14种;列入CITES保护名录的Ⅰ、Ⅱ级重点保护鸟类分别有1、7种;列入IUCN红色名录等级易危、近危和低度关注的分别有3、4和96种;列入国家林业局"三有"名录的有90种;属古北界、广布和东洋界鸟类的分别占65%、25%和10%。种群数量以旅鸟和夏候鸟为主,分别占58%和34%,迷鸟、冬候鸟和留鸟较少,南北不同区域的居留型差异较大;以蒙古高原荒漠湿地鸟类为主,鸻形目、雁形目、鹳形目和鹤形目的鸟类分别占45%、25%、10%和9%,且其数量比湿地恢复保护前增加明显,其余鸊鷉目、鹈形目、红鹳目、隼形目、佛法僧目等的鸟类所占比例较少,数量变化不大。随着湿地生态系统功能不断恢复、区域生态环境不断改善和人们保护鸟类意识的日益增强,以及全球气候变暖,荒漠和黄土区鸟类相互逐渐扩散,研究区内鸟的种类和数量逐年增多,在2010年前记载鸟类共232种,2017年增到280种,2017年调查发现水鸟新记录18种。该研究可为全球最大的遗鸥繁殖地(红碱淖湿地)和繁殖种群及中国鸟类迁移通道保护提供基本依据。
英文摘要:
      In order to objectively evaluate the impact of the wetland ecosystem changes on water-bird diversity in ecologically fragile zones, the water-bird diversity before and after the restoration and reconstruction of the wetland ecosystem in Yulin of the northern Shaanxi was systematically studied by line-transect-sampling in 2017 and 2018. The results show that there are 106 species of water-birds in the area,belonging to 55 genera of 20 families of 9 orders, accounts for 88% and 40.0% of the total number of water-birds in Shaanxi Province and the whole China respectively,which includes 2 species of Grade I,11 species of Grade Ⅱ listed as the State Key Protected Wildlife and 14 species of Provincial Key Protected Wildlife respectively, and 1 and 7 kinds of water-birds listed as Grade I and Grade Ⅱ protected names in the CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention). The IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) Red List Ranks of the VN (Vulnerable), NT (Near Threatened) and LC (Least Concern) species are 3, 4 and 96 species respectively. There are 90 species of water-birds entered into "A list of terrestrial wild animals that are beneficial to the state or have important economic and scientific research value" (for shortened as national "three values" in China's list). The water-birds from the palaearctic, widespread and oriental species account for 65%,25% and 10% respectively. The region is dominated by passage migrant and summer visitor birds,which account for 58% and 34% respectively,there are fewer populations of vagrant visitor,winter visitor and resident birds,and there are large differences in avian residential types between different regions in the south and north. The water-birds are given priority to with the desert birds in the Mongolian Plateau, the water-birds from Charadriiformes, Anseriformes, Ciconiiformes and Gruiformes accounts for 45%, 25%, 10% and 9% respectively, and which number did significantly increase in recent years compared with that before wetland restoration and reconstruction. But the water-birds from Podicipediformes, Pelecaniformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Falconiformes and Coraciiformes are less proportion, which quantity doesn't change much. With the function restored of wetland ecosystem, the ceaseless improvement of regional environmental quality and people's consciousness of protecting birds, and the global climate warming, the desert birds and loess birds gradually spread out, which makes scope of bird species and quantity increased year by year. There were 232 species of birds recorded in the zone before 2010, up to 280 in 2017,and 18 new species found of water-birds are recorded in the zone. The study provides a fundamental basis for the protection of the largest breeding area (Hongjiannao wetland) and breeding population of relict gulls in the world,and migration routes of Chinese birds.
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