文章摘要
韩祯,王世岩,刘晓波,彭文启,葛刚,黄爱平.基于淹水时长梯度的鄱阳湖优势湿地植被生态阈值[J].水利学报,2019,50(2):252-262
基于淹水时长梯度的鄱阳湖优势湿地植被生态阈值
Ecological thresholds for the dominated wetland plants of Poyang Lake along the gradient of flooding duration
投稿时间:2018-11-23  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20181052
中文关键词: 鄱阳湖  湿地植被  淹水时长  梯度  生态阈值
英文关键词: Poyang Lake  wetland plants  flooding duration  gradient  ecological threshold
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0407601);国家自然科学基金项目(51479219,51439007);中国水利水电科学研究院流域水环境过程综合调控理论与应用领军人才项目(WE0145B532017);重大水利工程水生态安全保障及调控技术研究创新团队项目(WE0145B592017)
作者单位E-mail
韩祯 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
王世岩 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
刘晓波 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
彭文启 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038 pwq@iwhr.com 
葛刚 南昌大学, 江西 南昌 330000  
黄爱平 中国水利水电科学研究院 水环境研究所, 北京 100038  
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中文摘要:
      2003年后,鄱阳湖和长江的“江湖关系”变化显著,湖区枯水问题严重,洲滩淹水时间缩短,湿地植被的水分需求难以得到保障,湿地退化趋势初步显现。为量化湿地植被对淹水时长的生态需求,通过耦合水动力模型和统计模型,建立植被分布面积对淹水时长的响应关系,明确了优势湿地植被的生态阈值。结果表明:湿地植被对淹水时长的响应关系符合高斯曲线,持续一定时间的淹水,是保障植被生长的必要条件;淹水时间过长,植被生长将受到胁迫。在淹水时长梯度下,湿地植被具有最适、适宜和限制区间,且存在明显种间差异:苔草对淹水的适应能力最强,适宜生态阈值为60~240 d,最适生态阈值为120~180 d,淹水超过300 d的区域,苔草生长受限;狗牙根适应能力较弱,适宜和最适生态阈值分别为30~60 d、30~90 d,淹水超过120 d的区域,狗牙根无法生存。植物面对淹水的不同生存策略,如休眠、形态结构调整等,是决定阈值种间差异的主要原因。研究结果能够为确定生态水文过程线,遏制鄱阳湖湿地退化趋势提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      After 2003, the “river-lake” relation between Poyang Lake and Yangtze River has been changed significantly. The flooding duration for the wetlands is obviously shorter than that before 2003, and it is hard to guarantee the ecological demands of wetland plants. The trend of wetland degradation has emerged gradually. In order to illustrate the ecological demands of wetland plants for flooding duration, the response curve has been established by the coupling between hydrodynamic model and statistical model,and the ecological thresholds of the six dominant wetland plants of Poyang Lake are quantified, respectively. The results demonstrate that the relation between area of wetland plants and flooding duration can be depicted through Gaussian curve, and the optimal, suitable and inhibited thresholds can be estimated along the gradient of flooding duration. Besides,there are obvious differences for the ecological thresholds among the six species of wetland plants. For instance, Carex has the strongest adaptability to flooding, and the suitable and the optimal thresholds for the Carex are 60~240 days and 120~180 days, respectively, while its growth would be inhibited if the duration of flooding is longer than 300 days. Among the six species of wetland plants, Cynodon dactylon shows weakest adaptability to flooding, its suitable and optimal thresholds are 30~60 days and 30~90 days, respectively, and it is not found in area where the flooding duration is longer than 120 days. Different survival strategies, such as dormancy and morphological plasticity, are the main reason for the different ecological threshold. The findings of this study can be used for guiding the eco-hydrological process regulation and wetland restoration.
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