文章摘要
李薇,谢国虎,胡鹏,贺治国,王远见.黄河洪水洪峰增值机理及影响因素研究[J].水利学报,2019,50(9):1111-1122
黄河洪水洪峰增值机理及影响因素研究
Mechanisms of peak discharge increase in the Yellow River floods and its influencing factors
投稿时间:2019-02-16  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20190103
中文关键词: 黄河  高含沙洪水  洪峰增值  特征线  流量计算
英文关键词: Yellow River  hyperconcentrated floods  peak discharge increase  characteristics  flow discharge calculation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0405502);国家自然科学基金项目(11872332,11772300);水利部黄河泥沙重点实验室开放课题基金项目(K18-529112-013)
作者单位E-mail
李薇 浙江大学 海洋学院, 浙江 杭州 310058  
谢国虎 浙江大学 海洋学院, 浙江 杭州 310058  
胡鹏 浙江大学 海洋学院, 浙江 杭州 310058 pengphu@zju.edu.cn 
贺治国 浙江大学 海洋学院, 浙江 杭州 310058  
王远见 水利部黄河泥沙重点实验室 黄河水利科学研究院, 河南 郑州 450003  
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中文摘要:
      黄河洪水含沙量高,常出现洪峰流量沿程增加现象,但机理和影响因素尚无共识。本文基于断面积分的浑水连续和运动方程,推导了洪峰流量在特征线上变化的(常微分)相容方程,从而得到影响洪峰流量增加/减少的控制因素(即相容方程的源汇项)。据此,对1973-2012年间18场表现出洪峰流量沿程增加的洪水过程进行分析,计算了各控制因素的量级。结果表明,加剧洪峰增值的首要因素是外力的时间累积效应,其次是压力能沿程变化;削弱洪峰增值的主要因素是对流输运不平衡。进一步分析表明,适当增加上游流量并减少来沙,或增加上游流量并增大局部河段的过流面积,有可能抑制甚至消除洪峰增值现象。
英文摘要:
      Hyperconcentrated floods in the Yellow River are often featured by a phenomenon that the peak discharge increases along the downstream channel,of which the mechanism and influencing factors are controversial. In this paper,an ordinary differential compatibility equation for water discharge along the characteristic line is derived from the cross sectional-integrated continuity and momentum equations for sediment-laden flows. The dominant factors of the downstream peak discharge, i.e. the source sink term of the compatibility equation,can be obtained. Magnitudes of different factors in the compatibility equation are estimated for 18 events of downstream increasing peak discharge from 1973 to 2012. The results show that the temporal accumulative effect of external forces term plays the most important role in promoting the peak discharge increase and the second one is the spatial variation of pressure energy term whereas the imbalanced advection term suppresses the flood peak increase. Further analysis indicates that the following measures may suppress or even eliminate the peak increase:(1) increasing the upstream peak discharge and reducing the upstream sediment concentration;and (2) increasing the upstream peak discharge and enlarging the local flow area.
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