文章摘要
陈炼钢,陈黎明,贾建伟,徐祎凡,栾震宇,施勇.鄱阳湖枯季水位变化对越冬水鸟生境面积的定量影响[J].水利学报,2019,50(12):1502-1509
鄱阳湖枯季水位变化对越冬水鸟生境面积的定量影响
Quantitative effects of water level variation on the habitat area of wintering waterfowl in dry season of the Poyang Lake
投稿时间:2019-09-10  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20190647
中文关键词: 湿地  水位调控  生境适宜度  栖息地模拟
英文关键词: wetland  water level regulation  habitat suitability  habitat simulation
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0402200,2017YFC0405300);国家自然科学基金项目(51679143,41601376,51809180)
作者单位
陈炼钢 南京水利科学研究院 水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029 
陈黎明 南京水利科学研究院 水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029 
贾建伟 长江水利委员会水文局, 湖北 武汉 430010 
徐祎凡 南京水利科学研究院 水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029 
栾震宇 南京水利科学研究院 水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029 
施勇 南京水利科学研究院 水文水资源与水利工程科学国家重点实验室, 江苏 南京 210029 
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中文摘要:
      长江及鄱阳湖水系上游水库群运用后鄱阳湖枯季水文节律出现新的变化,给湿地水鸟越冬造成尚不明晰的潜在影响。为量化枯季水位变化对鄱阳湖越冬水鸟生境面积的影响,基于EFDC水动力学模型和生境适宜度曲线,构建了鄱阳湖枯季越冬水鸟栖息地数值模拟模型;以水深作为关键生境因子,对三峡水库175 m试验性蓄水后鄱阳湖枯季越冬水鸟潜在生境面积变化进行了连续模拟;以越冬水鸟数量峰值期(12月和1月)为关键时段,建立了越冬水鸟潜在适宜生境面积和浅水区(≤ 60 cm)面积变化与水位的三段式定量响应函数,提出了星子站水位11.70 m左右时越冬水鸟潜在生境面积将达到最大。三峡水库运用后鄱阳湖枯季越冬水鸟潜在适宜生境及浅水区面积均保持总体稳定,其均值相比运用前仅略增加1.02%和1.97%;扰动幅度明显减小,序列标准差在三峡水库运用后减小近50%。针对拟建的鄱阳湖水利枢纽工程,分析了不同水位调控方案下枯季越冬水鸟潜在生境面积的变化,结果显示补偿调节期特别是越冬候鸟数量峰值期内鄱阳湖水位不宜超过12.5 m,11~12 m之间对越冬水鸟保护影响最小,其潜在生境面积相比最大值偏小幅度可控制在10%以内。成果明晰了枯季水位变化对鄱阳湖越冬水鸟潜在生境面积的定量影响规律,为江湖新水沙条件下鄱阳湖枯季生态水位保障提供了量化依据。
英文摘要:
      After the operation of the reservoirs in the upper basins of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake, the hydrological rhythm in dry season of the Poyang Lake has undergone new changes, which have caused unclear potential impacts on the wintering waterfowl. In order to quantify the effects of water level change in dry season on the habitat area of wintering waterfowl in Poyang Lake, a numerical habitat simulation model for wintering waterfowl in Poyang Lake was developed based on EFDC hydrodynamic model and habitat suitability curve. The water depth was adopted as the key habitat factor,the habitat of the wintering waterfowl in the dry season of Poyang Lake has been continuously simulated since 175 m experimental impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2008. The peak period of wintering waterfowl (December and January) was selected as the key period,the three-stage quantitative response functions between habitat area change and water level have been developed for suitable habitat and shallow region (≤ 60 cm) respectively, the potential habitat area of wintering waterfowl gets the maximum if the water level at Xingzi station is around 11.70m. The results of long series continuous simulation show that the suitable habitat and shallow water area in dry season for wintering waterfowl are basically kept stable since operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2003, their averages only increase 1.02% and 1.97% respectively compared to pre-operation; however, the fluctuation decreases a lot, the standard deviation declines near 50% compared to pre-operation. For the proposed Poyang Lake water regulation project, the effect of different water level regulation schemes on habitat area are analyzed, the results show that the suitable ecological water level in dry season especially in the peak period of wintering waterfowl should be controlled under 12.5m, and the one between 11m and 12m is optimal,and its potential habitat area could be less than 10% compared to the maximum. The quantitative influence of the water level variation in dry season on the potential habitat area for wintering waterfowl in Poyang Lake has been clarified, and the quantitative basis for the ecological water level regulation in dry season of the Poyang Lake was determined.
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