文章摘要
杨开林,郭新蕾,王涛,郭永鑫,彭旭明,吴煜楠.冰下爆破预防冰坝的理论探索及实践[J].水利学报,2020,51(2):127-139
冰下爆破预防冰坝的理论探索及实践
Theory exploration and practice of preventing ice dam by blasting under ice
投稿时间:2019-08-05  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20190549
中文关键词: 冰下爆破  冰坝  爆破孔布置  温度场  影响长度
英文关键词: blasting under ice  ice dam  blasting hole arrangement  temperature field  influence length
基金项目:国家重点研发计划课题(2018YFC1508402,2018YFC1508403);公益性行业科研专项(201501025);中国水科院科研专项(HY0145B642017);国家自然科学基金项目(51979291)
作者单位
杨开林 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
郭新蕾 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
王涛 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
郭永鑫 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室, 中国水利水电科学研究院, 北京 100038 
彭旭明 黑龙江省防汛抗旱保障中心, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150001 
吴煜楠 黑龙江省防汛抗旱保障中心, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150001 
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中文摘要:
      把冰、水、热动力学理论与爆破效果相结合,提出了在冰坝易发点沿深泓线实施冰下爆破形成温度场预防冰坝灾害的理论,包括:爆破时间的选择,爆破孔的布置,爆破效果的估计,温度场水温及下游冰盖下水温的影响长度和冰盖融化速率的计算。黑龙江开江期冰下爆破的实践表明,爆破坑平均直径随炸药量的增加而增加,但在炸药量超过18 kg时,爆破坑平均直径随炸药量的增加变化不大;根据实测单位炸药量破碎的冰盖体积的效果,建议冰下爆破预防冰坝的单孔炸药量应不超过9 kg,包括冰盖厚度超过1 m的情况。
英文摘要:
      Combining ice, water and thermal dynamics theory with blasting effect, the theory of forming temperature field to prevent ice dam disaster is put forward by blasting under ice along thalweg line at the prone point of ice dam,including the selection of blasting time,the arrangement of blasting holes,the estimation of blasting effect, the calculation of the influence length of the temperature field water temperature and the downstream ice cover water temperature and the ice cover melting rate. The practice of ice blasting before ice cover breakup of Heilongjiang River shows that the diameter of the blasting pit increases with the increase of explosive quantity,but when the explosive quantity exceeds 18kg,the diameter of the blasting pit does not change much with the increase of explosive quantity. According to the measured volume of ice cover broken per unit explosive amount,it is suggested that the explosive amount per hole should not exceed 9kg for blasting under ice,including the case where the thickness of ice cover exceeds 1 m.
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