文章摘要
邓铭江,黄强,畅建霞,黄生志.大尺度生态调度研究与实践[J].水利学报,2020,51(7):757-773
大尺度生态调度研究与实践
Large-scale ecological operation research and practice
投稿时间:2020-05-11  
DOI:10.13243/j.cnki.slxb.20200326
中文关键词: 生态调度  生态恢复  地下生态水银行  沟汊渗灌  漓漫灌溉  监测评估
英文关键词: ecological operation  ecological restoration  underground ecological water bank  ditch branch ir-rigation  catchwork irrigation  ecological monitoring
基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(51879213);国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0405900)
作者单位
邓铭江 西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安理工大学, 陕西 西安 710048
新疆寒旱区水资源与生态水利工程研究中心, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830000 
黄强 西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安理工大学, 陕西 西安 710048 
畅建霞 西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安理工大学, 陕西 西安 710048 
黄生志 西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安理工大学, 陕西 西安 710048 
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中文摘要:
      通过分析总结国内外生态调度与生态恢复研究进展、发展趋势及其特点,提出水库调度已从将“生态目标”嵌入兴利调度的简单调控过程,转变为“后坝工时代”大尺度生态调度的综合调控过程,即:全流域-大空间尺度、长系列-大时间尺度、水循环-大系统尺度。指出生态调度是生态恢复和保护最有效的措施之一,提出了干旱区内陆河流域生态保护面临的挑战和需要研究解决的关键技术。以塔里木河下游生态输水和额尔齐斯河生态调度为研究对象,通过连续20年的动态监测、资料收集、野外数据采集及实验室数据处理,对生态输水方式、生态恢复响应、生态调度策略和生态保护模式等,进行了深入研究。结果表明:①生态恢复是一个长期的过程,需对地表水、地下水、植被响应、生境条件、生物多样性等开展长期监测,以掌握其动态情况,采取更为科学有效的调控措施;②为了提高塔里木河下游生态恢复成效,研究提出在实施双通道、汊河和面状输水的同时,采用“沟汊渗灌”延伸扩大受水区范围,快速有效补给地下水,建立了基于地下水位调控的“地下水银行”及生态修复平台。③创建了额尔齐斯河“七库一干”、“三次脉冲”、漓漫灌溉等多尺度耦合的生态调度技术体系和科学化、系统化、制度化的管理体系,初步形成水河湖联通、水网通达、水势漫溢的河谷林草漓漫灌溉系统。改变以往生态调度“只放不灌”和“大水漫灌”的粗放式管理模式,丰富了生态调度的研究内涵与实践。
英文摘要:
      This study summarizes the progress, trend and developmental characteristics of ecological opera-tion and restoration, and suggests that reservoir operations have changed from a simple operational process embedded the "ecological target" to a comprehensive operational process of large-scale ecological operation in the "post-dam era",which incorporates the basin scale (large spatial scale),long-term series(large tem-poral scale), and water cycle(large system).Furthermore, it is pointed out that ecological operation is one of the most effective methods for ecological restoration and protection, and proposed the key challenges of the ecological operation in inland river basins in arid regions. The large-scale ecological operation is demon-strated for the ecological operations of the Tarim River and the Irtysh River, which are based on more than 20-year dynamic monitoring and management to comprehensively evaluate the ecological restoration and the strategies of ecological operation and protection. Results show that, ① ecological restoration is a slow-changing process that requires long-term monitoring of surface water, groundwater, vegetation re-sponse, habitat conditions, biodiversity, etc., to grasp its dynamics and to adopt more effective regulatory measures. ② Although the ecological conditions of the downstream of the Tarim River has been restored, there has been no fundamental mitigation the vulnerability of ecosystem. For improving the effectives of the ecological operation, this study proposed the method of "groove seepage irrigation" and "seepage irrigation" to further extend the scope of the affected areas while implementing the double channel and the surface wa-ter transmission. This method establishes the platform of ecological operation and restoration based on groundwater level regulation and the concept of "underground ecological water bank" for rapidly replenishing groundwater. ③ This study also established the multi-scale coupling technology of ecological operation and scientific,systematic,and institutionalized management system of the Irtysh River,which change the exten-sive management of traditional ecological operation (e.g. flood irrigation) and prompt the development of eco-logical water operation.
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