文章摘要
冰期明渠水温模型
Water Temperature Models of Open Channels in Glacial Period
投稿时间:2021-05-31  修订日期:2021-09-03
DOI:
中文关键词: 明渠,水温,大气热交换,衬砌热交换,临界气温,临界长度。
英文关键词: open channel  water temperature  atmospheric heat exchange  lining heat exchange  critical air temperature, critical length
基金项目:水利部公益性行业科研专项(201501025); 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1508403);S国家自然科学(51979291,52009144).
作者单位邮编
杨开林 流域水循环模拟与调控国家重点实验室中国水利水电科学研究院 100038
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中文摘要:
      正确的模拟明渠水温是分析冰情及优化调蓄水库布局的基础。基于历史气象资料,本文提出了水体与大气热交换的线性化模型和非线性模型,这些模型包含了太阳辐射、长波辐射、蒸发和对流热交换等主要因素。建立了水体与混凝土衬砌渠道热交换的参数化模型,考虑了衬砌结构、导热性能和地温等因素的影响。在此基础上,建立了明渠一维流动水温模型,提出了水温发生变化的临界气温判据,然后利用特征线方法解析得到明渠水温的递推数值计算公式,提出了均匀流条件下水温由正转负的临界长度公式,分析了气温、渠道进口水温、地温和太阳辐射等对临界长度的影响,最后,通过典型算例比较了非线性热交换模型和线性热交换模型对临界长度的影响。
英文摘要:
      Correct simulation of water temperature in open channel is the basis for analyzing ice condition and optimizing the layout of storage reservoirs. Based on the historical atmosphere data, a linear model and a nonlinear model of heat exchange between water and atmosphere are proposed in this paper, including the influence of solar radiation, long-wave radiation, evaporation and convective heat exchange. A parameterized model of heat exchange between water body and concrete lining is established, taking into account the influence of lining structure, thermal conductivity and ground temperature. On this basis, the one-dimensional flow water temperature model of open channel is established, and the critical temperature criterion for water temperature change is proposed. Then, the recursive formula for numerical calculation of open channel water temperature is obtained by analyzing the characteristic line method. The critical length formula of water temperature from positive to negative under the condition of uniform flow is put forward, and the effects of air temperature, channel inlet water temperature, earth temperature and solar radiation on the critical length are analyzed. Finally, the effects of nonlinear heat exchange model and linear heat exchange model on the critical length are compared with a typical example.
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